The Friendship finally arrived at Port Jackson on 14 January 1818 after a voyage of 195 days with four less than its original consignment of 101 female convicts. The ‘Ship News’ column of The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser of 17 January announced the arrival of the Friendship.
On Tuesday arrived the ship Friendship from England, Capt. Armet, with 97 female prisoners, under the medical superintendence of Dr Cosgreave, of the R.N. Three women died on the passage, which was unfortunately very long, being from 3d July, the day of her quitting England, to the 13th [sic] of January, the day of her arrival here. The names of the women who died were Ann Beal, Sarah Blower, and Martha Thatcher. To this number we are sorry to add Jane Brown, who from a sudden irritability of temper threw herself overboard and was drowned.[i]
In its report of the arrival of the vessel the Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter of 14 February listed the names of Cabin class passengers.
The passengers arrived by the ship were, William Cordeaux and Thomas Walker Esqrs. of considerable rank in the Commissariat Department; and Mr. Giles of the Missionary Establishment, Mrs. Giles and family, intending for Otaheite.[ii]
In addition, and as mentioned earlier, the Friendship carried a small group of ‘indulgence’ passengers, wives and children of men who were already in the colony, having been previously transported. As well as reporting on the conduct of the 101 female convicts, Peter Cosgreave took it upon himself to provide character references for these indulgence women, some of which were decidedly uncomplimentary.
If the female convicts thought that arrival at Sydney signified the end of their voyage they were to be disappointed and no doubt somewhat frustrated over the time it took for them to be disembarked and hence commence the next stage of their lives, under whatever circumstances they found themselves. Indeed, even before the ship reached harbour, there was some concern that she was a carrier of contagious disease and her arrival might be further delayed. On 7 January 1818 the Colonial Secretary wrote to John Piper, Naval Officer, warning him that the Friendship might need to be placed in quarantine.
His Excellency the Governor having reason to apprehend that an infectious and highly dangerous disease had broken out on Board the Female Convict Ship Friendship just at the time of Her leaving England – and her arrival here now daily looked for, I have to convey to you His Excellency’s Desire that you do not Board her in the manner usual on arrival nor permit any other Person to board her, except that the Pilot, until such time as it shall be duly certified and ascertained that neither Small Pox or other infectious complaints exist on Board of her.
As your Duty will necessarily bring you acquainted with the actual state of the case which you will ascertain by communicating with those on Board, from such distances as voice will reach, you will also strictly enjoin every Person on Board of Her to remain there until further orders shall reach you from the Governor, and in the meantime you will give the necessary Orders for Her being brought to anchor in Neutral Bay, and strictly forbid any intercourse being held by them on Board with any Persons from the shore, and on no account whatever are any Persons to be permitted to Board the said vessel until a Health certificate be attained.[iii]
In the event, it seems that no contagious disease was identified.
Before any of the Friendship’s convict women could be disembarked they had to be mustered, a procedure undertaken by the Governor’s secretary and the superintendent of convicts – who in January 1818 were John Thomas Campbell and William Hutchinson respectively. As when records were written up on embarkation, this muster was time-consuming. Each women was asked her name, time and place of trial, sentence, native place, age, trade and occupation and the answers then compared (and if necessary corrected) with the information given on embarkation and any additional records from the holding prisons. Then the woman’s height was measured and details of the colour of her hair, eyes, and complexion, her build, and any particular identifying marks (e.g. moles, tattoos, squint) were noted down. Unfortunately, with respect of the Friendship women, not all of these personnel records have survived. Indeed, they may not have been conscientiously documented at the time. Thorough and meticulous recording was critical to convict management, as noted by Commissioner John Thomas Bigge in his report on convict administration in the colony.
The correctness and particularity of this muster is of great importance ; for when signed by the secretary, it forms a check upon any error that may have crept into the indents and assignments of the convicts that are transmitted from the Secretary of State’s office to the governor of New South Wales, and connects the date of trial and description of their offences with a complete identification, of their persons, highly useful for purposes of police, as well as for the regulations respecting tickets of leave and certificates of exemptions from penal servitude.[iv]
Finally, each of the convict women was questioned regarding the treatment she had received during the passage. Had she has received her full ration of provisions; did she have any complaint to make against the captain, his officers and crew; and lastly, did she have any bodily ailment or infirmity? Interestingly not one of the convict women lodged a complaint. To all intents and purposes Captain Armet and Surgeon Cosgreave had performed their duties to the satisfaction of all parties concerned and no doubt they were relieved to have seemingly fulfilled their remit and could look forward to receiving the payments due to them.
However, if the convict women kept silent, others were prepared to speak up. On 23 January 1818 Secretary Campbell wrote to the Judge Advocate advising:
Various charges having been preferred against the Captain and Surgeon of the Female Convict Ship Friendship, now in Sydney Cove, by Persons Designating themselves either Passengers, Ship’s Officers or Crew of that vessel, His Excellency the Governor deems it necessary that the same should be minutely investigated … [and] requests that you will summons a full Bench of Magistrates for tomorrow to enter on the necessary inquiry. [v]
Surgeon Cosgreave had probably anticipated trouble. In what may be perceived as a pre-emptive defensive tactic to cover his back, immediately on arriving at Port Jackson, he had sent a letter dated 14 January 1818 to Governor Macquarie reporting that warnings to the crew of the consequences of ‘meddling with the Convicts’, and that attempts by both himself and the captain to repress or curtail the ‘highly reprehensible conduct’ had proved hopeless.
I beg leave to report the arrival of this Ship, with Female Convicts and passengers for the Colony, after a tedious passage from Deptford of nearly Seven Months, and enclose a list of the Deaths and Births.
The State of Health during the Voyage has been such as might be expected from the appearance of Typhus Fever, shortly after Embarkation, Subsequently Dysentery, and at present Sea Scurvy to a serious Degree; the latter disease has been in a great Measure aggravated by a privation of Vegetable food, save a few days at St. Helena, where the Master of the Ship was under the Necessity of putting in in consequence of the Insubordinate State of his Crew.
By my Instructions, I am apprized of an Enquiry into the State of Prostitution in which the Female Convicts might have lived with the Officers and Seamen whilst on Board, and the measures taken by the Master and myself to prevent the Same.
It is with regret I have to Communicate to your Excellency the total failure of my Orders in this matter, and that Prostitution and its Consequence has been Carried on to a most Shameful extent.
In making my Report of the probable Cause of such disgraceful transactions, it is with pain I feel obliged to attribute it to individuals, by Stating that the Officers of the Ship are the Persons who both showed the Example, and encouraged a Continuance of it!
Shortly after Joining the Ship, I rec’d my Instructions, which I instantly Communicated to the Chief Mate, a Gentleman belonging to the Royal Navy, lately Married, and from whom I had every reason to expect a Cordial Co-operation in the discharge of my duty; the rest of the Officers are Young Men Strongly recommended to the Master; the Passengers are Mr. Giles, belonging to a religious Society and his family, and two Gentlemen of the Commissariat Staff; with such Company, I entertained every hope of Complying with my orders, at least to succeed so far as to preserve the bounds of decency.
My first Care was directed to an arrangement for the Comfort of the unfortunate Convicts, and I accordingly issued rules and regulations for their Government; I allowed indiscriminately the free use of the Quarter Deck and advised them to Conduct themselves in an orderly and decent manner, as it was probable that the Character, they might acquire whilst on Board, would tend in a manner to alleviate or augment their Sufferings at New South Wales.
After our arrival at Portsmouth, a Convict was found in the Hammock of one of the Men, for which I Kept her on the after Part of the quarter Deck as a mark of disgrace, and applied to the Navy Board for advice how I should act with the Sailor, when they ordered him to be discharged; this Circumstance afforded me an Opportunity of Convincing every person on board that I was determined (if possible) to obey my orders; I accordingly made known to them, and read both my Instructions and the Board’s Letter.
The Master of the Ship also apprized his Crew of the Consequence that was likely to result from their meddling with the Convicts, being Considered as the Cargo, and called to their recollection the articles which they Signed “to obey all lawful commands or forfeit their Wages.” Shortly after, we proceeded on our Voyage and continued without any particular Occurrence till the 29th of July last, when a Spirit of great insubordination and Mutiny seemed to Exist, originating from the restraint of Prostitution; by this outrage I lost all Controul [sic] over the Convicts in a moral point of View, and I found it useless to Contend in a matter where all the Officers and Crew were implicated. I was therefore under the Necessity of relinquishing the Punishment by Marks of Disgrace on such Occasions.
The Women Constantly lived in the Men’s births [sic], and the officers took off the Hatches at Night to let up others for themselves and for Such as wanted them; the Men even claimed as a right the effects of their respective deceased prostitutes, till at length they became Callous to all Shame; threats were held in Contempt and remonstrances treated with levity; at this Period my Situation can be better conceived than described; but when it is considered the wretched profligates I had to deal with, astonishment (at every act of theirs) will cease. They no longer looked upon me in any other light, than destined to watch them in their Infamy, and to cheat them of the allowances of Government; they became regardless to personal Cleanliness, and even left the calls of Nature in the Prison, under the foolish impression that it was annoying me, because I Superintended the Cleaning of it.
In this state I continued until our arrival at St. Helena, where I expected some Example would be made of Such as were the cause of our Confusion. I therefore represented it to the Admiral, who was pleased to Say that he would send two Post Captains to enquire into the bad Conduct of the Crew.
On this Subject, I beg leave to refer your Excellency to the report of the Master of the Ship; at the same time I take the liberty to Maintain that from whatever Circumstance, that transpired at this Investigation, the Effrontery of the aggressors was Considerably increased, and every act of profligacy appeared to have received the Sanction of Law, Ocular demonstration being Considered indispensably necessary for Conviction; and even then it was held that there was no power Vested in the Authority of New South Wales to Punish the Offenders.
Under Such Circumstances I trust Your Excellency will make the necessary allowance for my inability in Complying with the intentions of the Right Honorable the Secretary of State in preventing Prostitution. I have, &c.[vi]
Similarly, Captain Armet, in a letter also dated 14 January to Governor Macquarie, referred to the ‘Circumstances of Prostitution in the ship During the Voyage and also the steps taken to prevent it’.[vii]
To assist the Bench the Secretary provided the following documents which he had received in support of the charges.
- A Letter signed ‘Amelia Wood’, an indulgence passenger on behalf of herself and other female passengers. (Of note is that Surgeon Cosgreave, in his assessment of the indulgence passengers, had described Amelia Wood as a ‘highly improper and vile character’. He also reported that, in addition to the daughter which she had been given permission to take with her, she had attempted to smuggle on board another daughter and, further, during the voyage she had given birth to a son).
- A Letter signed ‘M.C. Kearns’ who describes himself as Captain’s Steward.
- A Letter signed ‘Robt Culverwell’ designating himself 3rd Mate.
- A Memorial signed by 17 Persons styling themselves the ‘Crew of the Friendship’.
The Secretary also provided a list of the free passengers whose evidence the Bench might well rely on to ‘satisfactorily ascertain how far the Charges are founded in truth or originating in malice’ – William Cordeaux, Thomas Walker, Mr. Giles, Mr. and Mrs. William and Mary Hayes (free settlers), and Mrs. Charlotte Wells and Mrs. Broadribb (indulgence passengers). On the same day, the Secretary wrote to Captain Armet and Surgeon Cosgreave advising them that the inquiry would be held on 24 January, and they were both required to attend. [viii]
The inquiry extended over two days, during which depositions were taken from nine witnesses. Two issues were addressed – the distribution/withholding of rations and the alleged rampant prostitution on board. With reference to the latter, the depositions of Captain Armet and Surgeon Cosgreave are of particular interest.
Andrew Armett, Commander of the Ship Friendship, duly Sworn, Deposeth: In Consequence of the Orders I received from His Majesty’s Government, I gave Instructions to my Officers and Crew to have no intercourse whatever with the Convicts on Board the Ship; on 29th July, it was reported to me that a female Convict was in the Galley of the Ship. I confined her accordingly. I afterwards received information that all the Officers and Ship’s Company also had intercourse with the Women, and I have reason to believe the Information was true. I admonished the Officers and cautioned them as to such proceedings; but they denied them; some time afterwards at Night I saw the second Mate, Mr. Spencely, talking to a Woman in the after Hatch; about the 16th of November, I found a Woman sitting by the side of Mr. Hill, the 4th Mate; I found also that three more Women were hid in the Officers’ Birth. I had them apprehended and Confined for Disobedience of my orders. I had also repeated information that the same System was still continued, and I believe the Officer of the Watch was the Person, who occasionally removed the Hatchway Grating, which secured the Women’s Apartment, by which means the intercourse was still continued. I was advised to keep the Key thereof, which had previously been Kept by Mr. Hicks, my Chief Officer. In consequence of these reports, I reported the same to His Excellency the Governor of Deptford ; Mr. Hicks was accustomed to Muster the Women and lock them down, but I discontinued this Practice in the Downs, because I did not consider they could then escape. I begged the Officers not to adopt the System of Prostitution in my sight. I said “do not let me see it, it is directly contrary to my orders.” I never saw anything indecent myself, but my Orders as to the intercourse with the Women were I believe Violated by every Man in the Ship. I never saw Mr. Hicks or Mr. Spencely in the Galley with the Women. Mr. and Mrs. Giles had an apartment opposite Mr. Hicks’ Cabin, as also had Mr. Walker; there was an investigation of illedged [sic] irregularities, which had been committed in the Ship, at St. Helena before two Captains in the Navy; but the result of that Investigation was not made known to me; none of the Convicts but the Woman, who had Charge of Mr. Cooper’s family, the Hospital Nurse and another Woman once on a late occasion had access to the Cabin. It was about 5 o’clock in the afternoon that I saw the Woman before mentioned in Mr. Hill’s Birth; the communication with the Births of the Junior Officers is different to that leading to Mr. Hicks, and if there was any Prostitution it was done in the most private and Secret way possible as I never saw any thing of it myself.
Peter Cosgreave, Esquire, Surgeon in His Majesty’s Navy and Superintendent Surgeon of the Ship Friendship, duly Sworn, Deposeth; I have generally understood that the System of Prostitution was universal in the Ship, and I have reason to believe it to be true. I first heard of it at Portsmouth when I wrote to the Navy Board. The Letter now produced is the Answer I received. I then found it necessary to Issue orders for the prevention of the Crime, and I also read my orders from the Navy Board and the Letter before produced; about the Month of July, a female Convict names Williams, was brought to me, having been found in the Galley. I confined her accordingly. I never saw any improper act between the Women and the Men. I used my utmost exertion, both by my own example and by my remonstrances, but in Vain; and I have seen the Hatches unlocked, which had been reported to have been locked. Several Women were found in the Junior Officers’ Births and had been punished accordingly by keeping them on the Quarter Deck, until the Officers promised that they would not repeat the offence. I have received every assistance from Captain Armett [sic], who has exerted himself by every means in his power to repress this System, both by his example and otherwise, but without effect; the Access to the Junior Officers’ Birth is different to that leading to Mr. Hicks. George Brown had a severe attack of a Pulmonary affection, which was materially aggravated by his continued intercourse with a female named Sarah Randall.
Essentially, they were both apparently aware of reports that illicit fraternisation took place. They both claimed that they had taken every measure within their power to stamp it out, and this was confirmed by witness William Cordeaux. But, crucially in absolving themselves, both of them denied ever having actually witnessed any incidents of prostitution. As attested by William Cordeaux, with respect especially to the Captain, this was very much a case of turning a blind eye – ‘the Captain said he did not care about the thing (meaning Prostitution), unless it was done under his own Eye’.[ix]
Of note is that one of the female convicts, 19 year old Amy Barfoot, whose behaviour during the voyage Surgeon Cosgreave had reported as being ‘Well behaved and industrious’, appeared before the Court of Inquiry – whether by the Surgeon’s request or voluntarily is not revealed.
Ann [sic] Barfoot, duly Sworn, Deposeth ; I came over in the Ship Friendship. I have heard Dr. Cosgreave give orders more than once that the Men should not have intercourse with the Women. I saw Mr. Hicks four times himself open the Hatches and let the Women up. I have not seen any other Officer of the Ship do so; a general intercourse took placed between the Men and Women on passage; between eleven and one in the Night, Mr. Hicks removed the Hatches; there were lights in the Women’s Apartment, and Mr. Hicks came there to put the Lights out. I have seen Mr. Hicks let the Women down in the Morning, who had been let up the Night preceding. Mr. Hicks had this communication before and since we were at St. Helena.[x]
The Magistrates handed down their report on 26 February. With respect to the mutinous crew, they declared that they did not have jurisdiction to rule on matters occurring on the high seas. Addressing the issue of insufficient rations provided to the free passengers, the Bench noted that this had been resolved. On the third count, however, the Magistrates unreservedly agreed that:
It has been most fully proved to us, that a criminal intercourse existed from the very commencement of the voyage, to its close, between some of the officers, the Ship’s company in general, and the Female convicts; in defiance of the orders of His Majesty’s government strictly prohibiting the same, which were repeatedly publicly read, and of every exertion of Captain Armet and Surgeon Superintendent Cosgreave to prevent its existence and continuance; who appear during the whole of the voyage to have acted with all possible attention to the orders of His Majesty’s Government, in every particular.[xi]
Given that so many of the convict women were implicated in the so-called ‘prostitution’ it is perhaps not surprising that they were reluctant to make any complaints when mustered on arrival. It must be remembered that a double standard existed for any untoward fraternisation. Women could (and frequently were) punished for consorting. But, as pointed out by Commissioner Bigge, no such legal recourse was provided for the men.
The punishment of the crew for holding improper intercourse with them, in the voyages from England to New South Wales, is, according to the present state of the law, not provided for; and … no master of a ship, however well disposed, will incur the risk of a mutiny of his crew for the sole purpose of preventing it, or the great degree of personal responsibility that would accrue from the infliction even of a moderate degree of corporal punishment.[xii]
With the conclusion of the inquiry, Andrew Armet and Peter Cosgreave could at last look forward to taking their leave of Port Jackson. By a Memorial dated 27 January, citing concern for the safety of his ship, Captain Armet sought Governor Macquarie’s permission for Chief Officer, Mr. William Hicks, to be discharged and also for the removal of a number of other crew members who he claimed, at the instigation of the Chief Officer, had manifested a high degree of insubordination and contempt by disobeying orders, plundering the stores and generally neglecting their duties, behaviour which continued even after the ship had weighed anchor at Port Jackson. A response was received the following day – His Excellency was prepared to allow Captain Armet to proceed without Mr. Hicks. However, based on the same rationale (the safety of the ship), the Governor could not possibly extend the indulgence to Captain Armet of discharging a number of sailors, who by his own account were ill-behaved. Thus:
His Excellency hereby notifies you that you will be required to remove all those disorderly characters whom you brought with you into this Country – their being suffered at large here, being on your own Statement, a dangerous experiment and by no means proper to grant.[xiii]
By notice in the 14 February Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser both the exonerated Andrew Armet and Peter Cosgreave advised that they were intending to leave the Colony by the Friendship, and requested that all Claims be presented forthwith.[xiv] Secretary Campbell instructed the Commissariat staff to arrange payments to the now unemployed Peter Cosgreave Esquire, Surgeon, R.N. and late Surgeon Superintendent of the hired Female Convict Transport Friendship:
… for the usual Passage Money Ninety five Pounds Sterlg allowed on such occasions for their return to England, as also with Rations from the 30th January during his stay in the Colony.[xv]
On Sunday 15 March the Friendship sailed for England, via Batavia and Bengal. The Bury and Norwich Post of 2 December 1818 announced to its readers that copies of the Sydney Gazette, up to the end of August, had just been received. One of the items of news noted was the arrival at Sydney in January 1818 of the convict transport Friendship.[xvi] However, and illustrating the inconvenience of time and distance, when the Post’s subscribers were reading this news, the Friendship was no more. On arrival at Port Louis, Mauritius on 5 August 1818, and having sprung a leak, she was deemed unseaworthy and was to be sold off, with all her Stores, on 23 September. The Friendship was broken up in 1819.[xvii]
However, evidence subsequently gathered by Commissioner Bigge into the condition and treatment of convicts during the passage to New South Wales calls into question the exoneration of Captain Armet and Surgeon Cosgreave. In his report, under the heading Prevention of Prostitution, Commissioner Bigge made particular reference to the 1818 voyage of the Friendship.
Although, in the transportation of female convicts to New South Wales, the preservation of their health has been more easily and generally accomplished than that of the males, yet no scheme of superintendence has yet been devised by which their intercourse with the crew can be entirely prevented. From the evidence of Mr. Cordeaux, Mr. Gyles, and Mr. Walker, who were passengers on board the convict ship Friendship, prostitution appears to have prevailed in a great degree, and the captain and surgeon at last connived at excesses that they had not the means to resist, or any hope of suppressing.[xviii]
[For a different perspective, see also the accounts of Rev John Gyles and Rev Samuel Marsden on the conduct of the Friendship’s Master and Surgeon refer to Jen Willetts, Free Settler or Felon?]
Commissioner Bigge singled out the Friendship as exemplifying the highly improper relationships between female convicts (and a few of the free women) and crew, but he could equally have included a number of other female transports aboard which illicit fraternisation was rife. Reports of such behaviour inevitably reached the ears, and challenged the sensibilities, of the British public and government authorities. On 24 January 1817 Earl Bathurst wrote to Governor Macquarie in the following terms.
I hereby transmit to you an Extract from a Representative, which has been made to me with respect to the present state of the Colony under your government.
You will, I am confident, be most anxious to afford me the most explicit information as to all the circumstances therein stated; but there are two points, affecting as they do to a great degree your character and conduct in the Administration of the Colony, to which I am more particularly anxious to call your attention. The first is that which relates to the state of Prostitution, in which it is stated that the Female Convicts during their voyage to the Colony are permitted to live with the Officers and Seamen of the Ships, in which they are embarked. As such a practice is in direct contradiction to all the information which has hitherto reached His Majesty’s Government, and as it is utterly destructive of every principle upon which such persons have been transported, it is most necessary that it should be accurately, and early investigated. I have therefore to desire that you would immediately examine, as to this point, in the most formal and explicit manner all the Passengers, who may have recently come to the Colony in Female Convict Ships, and transmit for my information the result of such examination.[xix]
At the end of that year, on 4 December 1817, Governor Macquarie, no doubt acutely aware that his ‘character and conduct and Administration of the Colony’ might be imperiled, responded to Earl Bathurst, and included the following undertaking.
In obedience to Your Lordship’s Commands, I shall however not fail in future, on the arrival of Female Convict Ships, to Institute a More strict Enquiry into the Circumstances of the Conduct and Characters of the Women during the Voyage, and whether they have been permitted to hold Improper Intercourse with the Officers and Seamen, and I submit to Your Lordship that the most effectual Mode to be adopted for preventing these indecent Connections would be to make the Surgeon-Superintendent answerable for Suffering the Female Convicts to be so Prostituted during the Voyage.
In Consequence of Your Lordship’s Desire, I have made particular Enquiry relative to the Conduct of the Female Convicts who Arrived in the last two Ships, namely The Lord Melville and Canada, and have now the Honor to transmit to your Lordship the Replies made by my Queries on the Subject by Mr. Justice Field, who Came a Passenger in the Lord Melville, and by Surgeon Superintendent Allan, who came in Charge of the female Convicts on board the Canada. The former will show how extremely difficult it is to prevent the Female Convicts from having Intercourse with the Officers and Sailors during Such a Voyage.
Enclosure No. 1 was the advice from Mr. Justice Field to Governor Macquarie, penned on 1 December 1817 in which he made the following pertinent comments.
I have to say that the women were treated very well and behaved as well as could be expected from their habits and character [my emphasis]; they were certainly permitted to cohabit with the Officers and Seamen … but to prevent connexion between the women and the seamen would (I am convinced) be quite impossible, even if the hatches had been battened down every night.[xx]
A lost cause!
[i] The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 17 Jan 1818, p.3.
[ii] The Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter, 14 Feb 1818, p.2.
[iii] Ancestry, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1856.
[iv] Free Settler or Felon? ”Bigge Report”, http://www.jenwilletts.com/commissioners_of_enquiry.htm. Indeed, just as a soldier is referred to and identified by Name, Rank and Number, so a convict was identified by Name, Ship and Sentence in official records.
[v] Ancestry, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1856.
[vi] Historical Records of Australia (HRA), Series I, Volume IX, The Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, 1917, pp.252-255.
[vii] Ancestry, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1856.
[viii] Ancestry, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1856.
[ix] HRA, Series I, Volume IX, pp. 754-755.
[x] HRA, Series I, Volume IX, p. 756.
[xi] HRA, Series I, Volume IX, p.759.
[xii] Report of the Commissioner.
[xiii] Ancestry, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1856.
[xiv] The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 14 Feb 1818, p.2.
[xv] Ancestry, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1856.
[xvi] Bury and Norwich Post, 2 Dec 1818, p.4.
[xvii] Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser, 24 Dec 1818, p.4. Lloyd’s List, 25 Dec 1818, p.2.
[xviii] Report of the Commissioner, Inquiry on the State of the Colony of New South Wales, (extracts), Free Settler or Felon? https://www.jenwilletts.com/commissioners_of_enquiry.htm.
[xix] HRA, Series 1, Volume IX, p.199.
[xx] HRA, Series 1, Volume IX, p.510.